More ICRtoP Resources on the DRC...
The Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) has a long history of conflict, but its recent crises can be traced to the aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. In response to violence carried out by exiled Rwandan Hutu genocidaires, Rwandan and Ugandan forces invaded the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 1996. In what came to be known as the First Congo War, Mobutu Sese Seko was overthrown and replaced by Laurent-Desire Kabila. Beginning in 1998, Kabila accused Rwanda of exploiting the DRC’s minerals, and was aided by Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe in a successful effort to push Rwandan and Ugandan forces out of the country. The Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement of July 1999 attempted to end hostilities between nations, and was signed by Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, and Uganda, as well as the DRC.
In November 1999, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) established the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), which was tasked with supervising and implementing the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement. Despite its efforts, however, continued violence in the DRC resulted in the Second Congo War, which waged until the 2003 peace accords were signed between Uganda and the DRC. Even though these accords officially ended the Second Congo War, a proxy war between Rwanda and Uganda continued until 2008. With UN electoral assistance provided under the auspices of MONUC, the late President Kabila’s son, Joseph Kabila, became the first democratically-elected president of the DRC in 2006.
Unfortunately, this democratic transition has not brought about the change that was hoped for in the perpetually conflict-ridden DRC, where it is estimated that more than 6 million people have been killed from war-induced causes. In addition, egregious human rights abuses such as systematic rape and wanton murder, among other violations, have created a horrific humanitarian crisis in the DRC and surrounding region. Much of this conflict has arisen from violence between the Forces armees de la Republique democratique du Congo (FARDC, Armed Forces of the DRC) and several rebel factions, including the Forces democratiques de liberation du Rwanda (FDLR, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), Maï-Maï Sheka, and M23. This persistent violence, coupled with the struggle for control of the DRC’s natural resources, continues to further destabilize an already-fragmented nation.
The following section provides a breakdown of several key rebel actors in the DRC conflict, such as the M23, FDLR, Maï-Maï Sheka, Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), and Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA); as well as an overview of the battle for minerals, from which much of the crisis stems. Subsequent sections will address the pivotal role of the M23 rebels in the exacerbation of the DRC conflict, along with human rights abuses committed by all parties, including rape, sexual violence, and the use of child soldiers. In addition, responses from the international community, regional organizations, and civil society will be outlined.
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)
Indeed, during the period of 30 July to 4 August 2010, the mass rape of more than 240 people was carried out in the eastern Congo by members of both the Rwandan FDLR and Maï-Maï Sheka rebels. In addition, homes and shops of many who would also be raped were looted. These crimes occurred within miles of the UN peacekeepers’ base, but the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) was unable to protect Congolese civilians. UN headquarters only became aware of the violence days later, when the International Medical Corps, which was charged with treating many of the victims of these attacks, first reported it.
Atul Khare, then UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, acknowledged the failure of the UN by stating that “our actions were not adequate, resulting in unacceptable brutalization of the population of the villages in the area. We must do better.” The UNSC also urged for the “swift and fair prosecution of the perpetrators,” and called for the enhancement of MONUSCO’s “interaction with the civilian population.” Since the mass rapes occurred, UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Margot Wallström, has stated that there is the potential for victims to be attacked in the future by the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC), as “there is already some information from MONUSCO peacekeepers on the ground that rapes, killings and lootings have been perpetrated by FARDC soldiers.”
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
Please see here for a list of other major rebel groups active in the DRC conflict.
In November 2012, the M23 fought the FARDC and successfully took the major city of Goma, located in the North Kivu province, effectively forcing civilians to flee the area. According to a UN Joint Human Rights Office report on the incident, both the M23 and the FARDC committed human rights abuses during the conflict, including mass rape and arbitrary executions. Notably, in November 2013, thirty-nine Congolese officers were tried for rape and acts of sexual violence. After the UNSC condemned M23’s seizure of Goma, M23 agreed to negotiate terms of withdrawal at a conference in Uganda. Unable to agree on the implementation of a ceasefire however, a pattern of stalled negotiations emerged that continued through the fall of 2013. In the wake of suspended peace talks, FARDC and M23 forces continuously clashed until a strong offensive by the FARDC, with significant assistance from the UN sanctioned Force Intervention Brigade (FIB), caused the M23 rebels to ultimately surrender and a peace deal was signed on 12 December 2013. While this marked a significant victory for the FARDC, and underscored the effectiveness of close collaboration with the FIB, it did not signify the end of conflict in the DRC. As the FADRC focused primarily on eliminating M23, other rebel groups, such as the FDLR and Maï-Maï Sheka received much needed reprieve and were thus able to regroup and strengthen their initiatives.
In its 2008 Global Report, the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers estimated that 7,000 child soldiers remained in government forces and armed groups. Indeed, children have often been recruited from refugee camps and used as combatants, sexual slaves, guards, and porters. In 2012, the UN accused the M23 rebels in particular of recruiting child soldiers. Though the UN subsequently announced the release of more than 500 child soldiers in eastern DRC provinces in September 2013, approximately 1,500 children remained mobilized in the areas in question.
Alarmingly, the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center stated that 2.75 million total Congolese have been displaced and 509,000 more have become refugees as of January 2013. Based on previous calculations of the death rate and toll in the DRC, Caritas International also estimates that some 6.9 million Congolese have now died since the outbreak of conflict in 1998.
Response by Civil Society
On 26 March 2013, Refugees International issued a report entitled “DR Congo: Outdated Approach, Misplaced Priorities,” which documents the plight of those who have been displaced in the Kivus due to M23 rebel violence. In addition, International Crisis Group’s report from July 2013 underscored that the root of conflict in the DRC is local land disputes, and recommended that resolving these land issues be a component of subsequent peace talks. In its 23 August 2013 report, Amnesty International also identified the imperative need to better protect civilians from M23 attacks. Similarly, on 2 October 2013, Human Rights Watch wrote an open letter to the UNSC, urging the Council to refuse to accept agreements that included amnesty for M23 fighters, as well as to adopt a resolution requiring Rwanda to discontinue its support for the M23, among other requests.
As discussed in previous sections, horrific human rights abuses have been continually committed in the DRC, notably since the start of the First Congo War in 1998. Some of the greatest concerns have been over the recruitment of child soldiers, sexual violence, and the murder of civilians. A parallel issue, however, is the larger security concern in the DRC, as violence in the Congo has spread instability to other states in the region, namely Rwanda and Uganda. As such, the UN and wider international community have also been greatly involved in seeking a resolution to the DRC conflict, specifically in the past decade.
Human Rights Council (HRC)
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
A particularly controversial component of the Mapping report was its allegations that Rwanda’s army was responsible for acts of genocide against ethnic Hutus living in the DRC, reprisals for the 1994 Rwandan genocide against the Tutsis. Similarly, the Report accused Ugandan troops of having committed war crimes in the DRC.
The OHCHR also addressed the issue of sexual violence in its 3 March 2011 report entitled “Remedies and Reparations for Victims of Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).” The report highlighted how victims of sexual violence are often responsible for bearing the cost of the harm done to them, and called on the Congolese government to implement a reparations fund for victims of sexual violence.
On 13 January 2012, High Commissioner Navi Pillay released a report (A/HRC/19/48) on the DRC, and concluded that “little improvement” had been made in the country since her last report. The OHCHR released another report (A/HRC/24/33) on 30 July 2013, to assess progress made by government authorities between November 2011 and May 2013. The report concluded, among other things, that increased human rights abuses, particularly in the eastern DRC, were attributable to M23 rebel activity in the region.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
The role of neighboring countries Rwanda and Uganda have been an underlying issue, as a UN Group of Experts found that both countries continued to support the M23 rebels in the fight against the FARDC and had violated terms of the arms embargo. Rwanda and Uganda were accused of providing the M23 rebels with weapons, ammunition, intelligence and political advice, as well as deploying army troops to fight alongside the M23. According to Human Rights Watch, Rwanda also forcibly recruited Rwandan men and children to fight for the M23. After continuous warnings to stop such activities, the United States, the European Union and Britain cut military aid to Rwanda in October 2013.
The most crucial element of the UNSC’s involvement in the DRC has been its authorization of two missions to the country. The first – the United Nations Organization Mission in the DRC (MONUC) – was established in 1999 following the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement. MONUC was succeeded in July 2010 by the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission (MONUSCO), aimed to better protect civilians and address issues raised during the MONUC period, including sexual abuse by UN Peacekeepers. Yet, MONUSCO continued to fall short in its ability to uphold its mandate to protect civilians in the DRC, highlighted by its inability to prevent the M23 seizure of Goma in November 2012.
To address the continued problems arising from the MONUC/MONUSCO era, the UNSC unanimously approved a first-ever Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) in March 2013. The unprecedented mandate of the Brigade allows its personnel to use “all necessary means”, including the use of offensive tactics, against the M23 and other rebel groups in order to enforce: civilian protection, neutralization of armed groups via the Intervention Brigade, arms embargo implementation, and provision of judicial processes. As such, MONUSCO’s capacity to protect civilians and promote stability in the region was significantly increased.
While civil society initially reacted with some trepidation to the implementation of the Force Intervention Brigade, as concerns were raised over the FIB’s ability to protect civilians and whether added military presence could in fact exacerbate the humanitarian crisis, the collaborative defeat of the M23 rebel group in November 2013 showed how effective the Intervention Force could be.
International Criminal Court (ICC)
On 14 March 2012, Thomas Lubanga, former leader of the Union des Patriotes Congolais (UPC), was convicted of war crimes and child soldiering, and subsequently sentenced to fourteen years in jail. Notably, Lubanga had been the ICC’s first arrest back in 2006. Leaders of the Force de resistance patriotique en Ituri (FPRI) and the National Integrationist Front (FNI) have also been also sought by the ICC.
Elsewhere, Bosco Ntaganda, a former M23 leader, made international headlines when he turned himself in at the US Embassy in Kigali, Rwanda, on 18 March 2013. Speculations for why the notorious leader of the M23 rebels would give himself up include fears for his own safety, given that following the 2011 elections in the DRC, President Kabila said he would arrest Ntaganda; as well as the fact that the M23 rebels suffered a defeat two days beforehand. Ntaganda is currently awaiting trial in The Hague.
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
International Conference on the Great Lakes Region and the February 2013 Framework Agreement
Importantly, the Agreement recognized the distinct yet interdependent roles of actors from the DRC, within the region, and within the international community. At the country level, the DRC agreed to work towards decentralization and further structural reform. Regional players promised to respect one another’s sovereignty, but to also increase cooperation between states.
The collective effort of the FARDC and the FIB to dismantle M23 in late 2013 marked the first instance in a decade in which a Rwandan rebel group was removed from the eastern DRC. This promising feat seemed to suggest a path of close collaboration between MONUSCO’s FIB and the FARDC in their pursuit of remaining rebel factions in the region. Regrettably however, throughout much of 2014, the cooperation between the government, regional, and international actors has increasingly dissipated, while the stabilization strategy for the region, outlined by the PSCF agreement, has progressed in “slow motion”. The effort to promote stability and peace, which includes implementing successful Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation (DDR) and Reintegration and Resettlement (RR) programs, as well as further targeted operations against the FDLR, has been stalled by ceaseless technical issues and a lack of determined will. In reality, the collaboration between MONUSCO’s FIB and FARDC remains limited. Following regional and international plans in which MONUSCO put the FDLR as its top priority, the DRC individually decided to focus solely on the ADF, emblematic of what the International Crisis Group calls its passive attitude towards the FDLR. Regional tensions between FIB’s main troop contributors – South Africa and Tanzania – and Rwanda have proven to stall any FIB efforts to forcefully engage against the FDLR, which consists of ex-genocidaires from the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
As a result, the FDLR still remains the region’s largest security concern, according to a December 2014 UN-Secretary-General report on the DRC. A July 2014 meeting between the ICGLR and the SADC, installeda six-month deadline for the FDLR to disarm, threatening military consequences should the group fail to comply. In October of 2014, three months later, a UN Group of Experts and MONUSCO have determined that the FDLR has continued to recruit and organize troops, indicating that the group is not on a path of demobilization.
As the January 2nd deadline passed, the Security Council determined that the FDLR has not only failed to demobilize but in fact is still in the process of recruiting new fighters, urging a joint FARDC-MONUSCO military operation to commence immediately. While a ICGLR-SADC summit was scheduled to map the way forward, Angola, which was to host the meeting, cancelled it and instead urged to actualize the threat of military consequences. On 29 January 2015 the army of the DRC, supported by MONUSCO and the FIB, officially declared the start of operations and launched a military campaign against the FDLR. While this development is encouraging, it is still too early to determine the effectiveness of the initiative. Early challenges have already emerged, as the UN threatened to pull their support should the Congolese government refuse to replace two military commanders accused of previous human rights violations. The government has yet refused to comply. In other developments, recent turmoil arose over alleged attempts by the current government to delay the 2016 national elections, in which current President Joseph Kabila would be unable to participate due to a two-term limit.