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Selected Reading on the Responsibility to Protect (with links)

This bibliography includes selected journal articles, public addresses, books, and briefing papers on the Responsibility to Protect and its significance in the global community. To add to this list, please send your suggestions to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. “The Responsibility to Protect” (International Development and Research Center, 2001) [link]

UN documents
High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change, “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.” (The United Nations, 2004) [link]
Annan, Kofi. “In Larger Freedom: Toward Development, Security and Human Rights for All.” (United Nations A/59/2005, 2005). [link]
2005 World Summit Outcome Document (UN A/RES/60/1, October 2005) [link]
Ban, Ki-moon, “Report of the Secretary General – Implementing the Responsibility to Protect” (UN A/63/677, 12 January 2009) [link]
Ban, Ki-moon, “Report of the Secretary General – Early warning, assessment and the Responsibility to Protect” (UN A/64/864, 14 July 2011) [link]
Ban, Ki-moon, “Report of the Secretary General - the Role of Regional and Sub-regional Arrangements in Implementing the Responsibility to Protect” (UN A/65/877, 27 June 2011) [link]
Academic Articles and Op-eds

Acharya, Amitav. "Redefining the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Intervention" (Australian Journal of International Affairs 56, 2002): 373. [link]

Evans, Gareth and Sanhoun, Mohamed. “The Responsibility to Protect” (Foreign Affairs 81, 2002): 99 [link] 

Holzgrefe, J. L., and Keohane, Robert O., eds. “Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas” (Cambridge University Press, 2003) [link]

Kioko, Ben. “The Right of Intervention Under the African Union’s Constitutive Act; Non-Interference to Non-Intervention” (International Review of the Red Cross. 85, 2003): 807-825 [link]

Levitt, Jeremy I. “The Responsibility to Protect: A Beaver Without A Dam?” (Michigan Journal of International Law 25, 2003): 153-177 

Evans, Gareth. “When is it Right to Fight?” (Survival 46, 2004): 60 [link]

Ken Roth, “War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention” (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004). [link]

Thakur, Ramesh. “Iraq and the Responsibility to Protect.” (Behind the Headlines. 62, 2004): 1-16 [link]
Asfaw, Semegnish, Guillermo Kerber, and Peter Weiderud. "The Responsibility to Protect: Ethical and Theological Reflections." The Responsibility to Protect: Moving Toward a Shared Consensus. France: (World Council of Churches, 2005). [link] 

Day, Graham and Christopher Freeman. “Operationalizing the Responsibility to Protect – The Policekeeping Approach.” (Global Governance 11, 2005): 139-147 [link]

Powell, Kristiana. “The African Union’s Emerging Peace and Security Regime: Opportunities and Challenges For Delivering on the Responsibility to Protect.” (The North-South Institute, 2005) [link]

Powell, Kristiana and Stephen Barany. “Delivering on the Responsibility to Protect in Africa.” (North-South Institute Policy Briefing Paper, 2005) [link]

Puley, Greg. “The Responsibility to Protect: East, West and Southern African Perspectives on Preventing and Responding to Humanitarian Crises.” (Project Ploughshares, 2005) [link]

Schabas, William A. “Preventing Genocide and Mass Killing: The Challenge for the United Nations.” (Minority Rights Group International, 2005) [link] 

Slaughter, Anne-Marie. “The Grand Themes of UN Reform.” (The American Journal of International Law 99, 2005): 619-631 [link]

Bannon, Alicia L. “The Responsibility To Protect: The U.N. World Summit and The Question of Unilateralism.” (Yale Law Journal 115, 2006): 1157-1164 [link]

Cohen, Roberta. “Strengthening Protection of IDPs; The UN’s Role.” (Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 7, 2006): 101-110. [link] 

Evans, Gareth. "Crimes Against Humanity: Overcoming Global Indifference." B’Nai B’Rith Anti-Defamation Commission. (University of New South Wales, Syndey: 30 April 2006) [link] 

Hamilton, Rebecca, J. "The Responsibility to Protect, from Document to Doctrine -But what of Implementation?" (Harvard Human Rights Journal 19, 2006): 289-297 [link]
Holt, Victoria K. and Berkman, Tobias C. "The Impossible Mandate? Military Preparedness, the Responsibility to Protect and Modern Peace Operations" (The Henry L. Stimson Center, September 2006) [link]

Holt, Victoria K. “The Military and Civilian Protection: Developing Roles and Capacities.” (Humanitarian Policy Group Briefing Paper 22 Mar. 2006) [link]

MacFarlene, Neil and Yuen, Foon Khong. “Human Security and the UN: A Critical History” (Indiana University Press, 2006) [link]

Morada, Noel. “R2P Roadmap In Southeast Asia: Challenges and Prospects.” (UNISCI Discussion Papers 11, 2006): 59-70 [link] 

Pace, William R. and Nicole Deller. “Preventing Future Genocide: A Responsibility To Protect.” (World Order 36, 2006): 15-30 [link]

Schabas, William A. "Preventing Genocide and Mass Killing - From a Culture of Reaction to Prevention." (UN Chronicle Volume XLIII Number 1, 2006) [link]

Schabas, William A. “Preventing Genocide and Mass Killing: The Challenge for the United Nations” (Minority Rights Groups International, 2006) [link]

Special Issue on Humanitarian Intervention after 9/11, (Wisconsin International Law Journal 24, no. 3, Fall 2006): 699-834. [link]

Fienstein, Lee. "Darfur and Beyond: What is Needed to Prevent Mass Atrocities" (Council on Foreign Relations, CSR No. 22, January 2007) [link] 

Mepham, David and Ramsbotham, Alexander, "Safeguarding Civilians: Delivering on the Responsibility to Protect in Africa," (Institute for Public Policy Research, May 2007) [link]
Evans, Gareth. “The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All” (Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008). [link]

Genocide Prevention Task Force, “Preventing Genocide, A Blueprint for U.S. Policymakers” US Holocaust Memorial Museum, The American Academy of Diplomacy (The United States Institute of Peace, December 2008) [link]
Bellamy, Alex J.. “Responsibility to Protect” (Polity, 2009). [link]
Ekkehard, Strauss. “The Emperor's New Clothes?: The United Nations and the Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect” (Nomos, 2009). [link]
Bellamy, A., “The Responsibility to Protect: Five Years On”, Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 24, no. 2, (2010), pp. 143-169. [link]
Luck, Edward. “The Responsibility to Protect: Growing Pains or Early Promise?” Ethics and International Affairs 24, no. 4 (2010): 349-365. [link]
Bellamy, Alex and Catherine Drummond. “The Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia: between Non-Interference and Sovereignty as Responsibility.” The Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (2011): 179-200. [link]
Weiss, Thomas G. “Military-Civilian Interactions: Humanitarian Crises and the Responsibility to Protect 
Second Edition” New Millennium Books in International Studies (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004) [link]

Thakur, Ramesh. "The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect." (Cambridge University Press, 2006) [link]

Weiss, Thomas G. “Humanitarian Intervention: War and Conflict in the Modern World” (Cambridge University Press, 2007) [link]
Bellamy, A. “Responsibility to Protect: The Global Effort to End Mass Atrocities.” (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009)

Cooper, Richard H. and Kohler, Juliette Voïnov ed., “Responsibility to Protect: The Global Moral Compact for the 21st Century” (New York: Macmillan, 2009). [link]
Badescu, Cristina. “Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Security and Human Rights.” (Routledge: 2010)
Chalk, Frank, Romeo Dallaire, Kyle Matthews, Carla Barqueiro, Simon Doyle. “Mobilizing the Will to
Intervene: Leadership to Prevent Mass Atrocities.” (McGill Queens University Press, 2010)
Davies, Sara E., Luke Glanville (Eds.). “Protecting the Displaced: Deepening the Responsibility to Protect.” (Martinus Nijhoff, 2010) [link]
Hinton, Alex (ed.), “Transitional Justice: Global Mechanisms and Local Realities after Genocide ad Mass Violence.” (Rutgers University Press, 2010) [link]
Pattinson, James. “Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene?” (Oxford University Press, 2010) [link]
Rotberg, R.I. (ed.), “Mass Atrocity Crimes: Preventing Future Outrages.” (Washington, DC: World Peace Foundation, 2010) [link]
Bellamy, Alex. “Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect: From Words to Deeds.” (Routledge, 2011) [link]
Kemp, Walter, Vesselin Popovski and Ramesh Thakur. “Blood and Borders: The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of the Kin-State.” (United Nations University Press, 2011) [link]
Feris, Elizabeth G. “The Politics of Prevention: The Limits of Humanitarian Action.” (Brookings Institution Press, 2011) [link]
MacQueen, Norrie. “Humanitarian Intervention and the UN.” (Edinburgh University Press, 2011)
Orford, Anne. “International Authority and the Responsibility to Protect.” (Cambridge University Press, 2011) [link]
Semelin, Jacques (Ed.). “Resisting Genocide: The Multiple Forms of Rescue.” (Columbia University Press, 2011) [link]
Simms, Brendan, D. J. B. Trim. “Humanitarian Intervention: A History.” (Cambridge University Press, 2011) [link]
Thakur, Ramesh. “The Responsibility to Protect: Norms, Laws and the use of Force in International Politics.” (Routledge, 2011) [link]

Fiott, Daniel, Joachim Koops (Eds.). "The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar: Legitimacy and Operationalization." (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014) [link]
Global Responsibility to Protect Journal [link]
This journal, launched in 2009, seeks to publish the best and latest research on the RtoP principle, its development as a new norm in global politics, its operationalization through the work of governments, international and regional organizations and NGOs, and finally, its relationship and applicability to past and present cases of genocide and mass atrocities including the global response to those cases. ICRtoP does not have access to full copies of the below articles and suggest you contact the publisher directly.
Volume 1, Number 1, February 2009
• Alex J. Bellamy, Sara E. Davies; Introduction
• Ramesh Thakur, Thomas G. Weiss; R2P: From Idea to Norm – or Action?
• Lloyd Axworthy, Allan Rock; R2P: A New and Unfinished Agenda
• Eli Stamnes; ‘Speaking R2P’ and the Prevention of Mass Atrocities
• Kwesi Aning, Samuel Atuboi; Responsibility to Protect in Africa: An analysis of the African Union’s Peace and Security Architecture
• Nicholas J. Wheeler, Frazer Egerton; The Responsibility to Protect: ‘Precious Commitment’ or a Promise Unfulfilled?
Volume 1, Number 2, March 2009
• Mely Caballero-Anthony, Belinda Chng; Cyclones and Humanitarian Crises: Pushing the Limits of R2P in Southeast Asia
• Jürgen Haacke; Myanmar, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Need for Practical Assistance
• Noel M. Morada; The ASEAN Charter and the Promotion of R2P in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Constraints
• Sarah Teitt; Assessing Polemics, Principles and Practices: China and the Responsibility to Protect
• Zhongying Pang; China’s Non-Intervention Question
• Roberta Cohen; The Burma Cyclone and the Responsibility to Protect
Volume 1, Number 3, June 2009
• David Carment, Martin Fischer; R2P and the Role of Regional Organisations in Ethnic Conflict Management, Prevention and Resolution: The Unfinished Agenda
• Ekkehard Strauss; A Bird in the Hand is Work Two in the Bush – On the Assumed Legal Nature of the Responsibility to Protect
• Jon Western; Humanitarian Intervention, American Public Opinion, and the Future of R2P
• Kristin M. Haugevik; Regionalising the Responsibility to Protect: Possibilities, Capabilities and Actualities
• James Pattinson; Humanitarian Intervention, the Responsibility to Protect and jus in bello
• Paul D. Williams; The “Responsibility to Protect”, Norm Localisation, and African International Society
Volume 1, Number 4, October 2009
• Sheri P. Rosenberg, Bryan R. Daves; The Responsibility to Protect: A Framework for Controning Identity-based Atrocities
• Donald Steinberg; Responsibility to Protect: Coming of Age?
• Sheri P. Rosenberg; Responsibility to Protect: A Framework for Prevention
• William G. O’Neill;  (Re)Building the Rule of Law after Identity-Based Conflict: What Responsibility to Protect Practitioners Will Confront
• Barabara Harff; How to Use Risk Assessment and Early Warning in the Prevention of De-Escalation of Genocide and other Mass Atrocities
• Kurt Mills; Vacillating on Darfur: Responsibility to Protect, to Prosecute, or to Feed?
Michael Contarino, Selena Lucent; Stopping the Killing: The International Criminal Court and Juridical Determination of the Responsibility to Protect
Volume 2, Numbers 1-2, February 2010
Theme: Protecting IDPs and Refugees
• Roberta Cohen; Reconciling R2P with IDP Protection
• Susan Martin; Forced Migration, the Refugee Regime and the Responsibility to Protect
• Erin E. Mooney; Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed…Something Blue? The Protection Potential of a Marriage of Concepts between R2P and IDP Protection
• Emma Haddad; EU Migration Policy: Evolving Ideas of Responsibility and Protection
• Phil Orchard; Regime Induced Displacement and Decision-Making Within the United Nations Security Council: The Cases of Northern Iraq, Kosovo, and Darfur
• Howard Adelman; Refugees, IDPs and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Darfur
• Jennifer M. Welsh; Turning Words into Deeds? The Implementation of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’
• Hugo Slim; Values versus Power: Responsible Sovereignty as Struggle in Zimbabwe
• David Chandler; R2P or Not R2P? More Statebuilding, Less Responsibility
• Mónica Serrano; Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: The Power of R2P Talk
• Edward Luck; A Response
Volume 2, Number 3, June 2010
Theme: R2P and International Law
Jutta Brunnée, Stephen J. Toope; The Responsibility to Protect and the Use of Force: Building Legality
• Jennifer M. Welsh, Maria Banda; International Law and the Responsibility to Protect: Clarifying or Expanding States’ Responsibilities?
• Hilary Charlesworth; Feminist Reflections on the Responsibility to Protect
• Dorota Gierycz; The Responsibility to Protect: A Legal and Rights-based Perspective
• Alex J. Bellamy, Ruben Reike; The Responsibility to Protect and International Law
• Luke Glanville; The International Community’s Responsibility to Protect
• Michael Barnett; On Gareth Evans, The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All
• Chris Brown; On Gareth Evans, The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All
• Robert Jackson; War Perils in the Responsibility to Protect
• Gareth Evans; Response to Reviews by Michael Barnett, Chris Brown and Robert Jackson
• Book Review – Robert W. Murray; Humanitarian Intervention after Kosovo: Iraq, Darfur and the Record of Global Civil Society
• Book Review - David Mickler; Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror
Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010
Theme: Africa’s Responsibility to Protect
• Jeremy Sarkin, Mark Paterson; Introduction
• Francis M. Deng; From ‘Sovereignty as Responsibility’ to the ‘Responsibility to Protect’
• Jeremy Sarkin; The Responsibility to Protect and Humanitarian Intervention in Africa
• Musifiky Mwanasali; The African Union, the United Nations, and the Responsibility to Protect: Towards an African Intervention Doctrine
• Adekeye Adebajo; Pax Nigeriana and the Responsibility to Protect
• Chris Landsberg; Pax South Africana and the Responsibility to Protect
• Webster Zambara; Africa’s National Human Rights Institutions and the Responsibility to Protect
Volume 3, Number 1, February 2011
• W. Andy Knight; The Development of the Responsibility to Protect- From Evolving Norm to Practice
• Ashley McLachlan-Bent, John Langmore; A Crime against Humanity? Implications and Prospects of the Responsibility to Protect in the Wake of Cyclone Nargis
• Theresa Reinold; The United States and the Responsibility to Protect: Impediment, Bystander, or Norm Leader?
• Frederic Eckhard: Whose Responsibility to Protect?
• Rachel Gerber; Preventing the Next Mass Atrocity, the US and UN strive to build better systems to prevent human tragedy: Findings from the Stanley Foundation’s Annual Strategy for Peace Conference
• Stanley Foundation; Moving from Principle to Policy- Funders Dialogue on the Responsibility to Protect
Volume 3, Number 2, June 2011
• Mark Gibney; Universal Duties- The Responsibility to Protect, the Duty to Prevent (Genocide) and Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations
• H.M. Roff; A Provisional Duty of Humanitarian Intervention
• Noha Shawki; Responsibility to Protect- The Evolution of an International Norm
• Deborah Mayersen; Current and Potential Capacity for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities within the United Nations System
• David Lanz; Why Darfur? The Responsibility to Protect as a Rallying Cry for Transnational Advocacy Groups
• Paul D. Williams; The Road to Humanitarian War in Libya

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