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References to Responsibility to Protect (RtoP, R2P) in Security Council Resolutions                                                                                 
Note: To see a list of references to RtoP in Security Council Presidential Statements, click here
 

2006

Great Lakes Region: S/RES/1653 (2006)

“Underscores that the governments in the region have a primary responsibility to protect their populations, including from attacks by militias and armed groups and stresses the importance of ensuring the full, safe and unhindered access of humanitarian workers to people in need in accordance with international law;”
 

Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: S/RES/1674 (2006)

“Reaffirming that parties to armed conflict bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of affected civilians,”

“Reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity;”

Sudan: S/RES/1706 (2006)

“Decides that UNMIS is authorized to use all necessary means, in the areas of deployment of its forces and as it deems within its capabilities:

to protect United Nations personnel, facilities, installations and equipment, to ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations personnel, humanitarian workers, assessment and evaluation commission personnel, to prevent disruption of the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement by armed groups, without prejudice to the responsibility of the Government of the Sudan, to protect civilians under threat of physical violence,”

“Recalling also its previous resolutions 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, 1502 (2003) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, 1612 (2005) on children and armed conflict, and 1674 (2006) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, which reaffirms inter alia the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 United Nations World Summit outcome document, as well as the report of its Mission to the Sudan and Chad from 4 to 10 June 2006,”

2009

Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: S/RES/1894 (2009)

“Recognizing that States bear the primary responsibility to respect and ensure the human rights of their citizens, as well as all individuals within their territory as provided for by relevant international law,”

“Reaffirming that parties to armed conflict bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians,”

“Reaffirming the relevant provisions of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including paragraphs 138 and 139 thereof regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,”

2011

Peace and Security in Africa (Libya): S/RES/1970 (2011)

“Recalling the Libyan authorities’ responsibility to protect its population,”

Libya: (S/RES/1973 (2011)

“Reiterating the responsibility of the Libyan authorities to protect the Libyan population and reaffirming that parties to armed conflicts bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians,”

“Expressing its determination to ensure the protection of civilians and civilian populated areas and the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance and the safety of humanitarian personnel,”

“Taking note also of the decision of the Council of the League of Arab States of 12 March 2011 to call for the imposition of a no-fly zone on Libyan military aviation, and to establish safe areas in places exposed to shelling as a precautionary measure that allows the protection of the Libyan people and foreign nationals residing in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya,”

“Considering that the establishment of a ban on all flights in the airspace of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya constitutes an important element for the protection of civilians as well as the safety of the delivery of humanitarian assistance and a decisive step for the cessation of hostilities in Libya,”

“Demands that the Libyan authorities comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights and refugee law and take all measures to protect civilians and meet their basic needs, and to ensure the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance;" 

“Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory, and requests the Member States concerned to inform the Secretary-General immediately of the measures they take pursuant to the authorization conferred by this paragraph which shall be immediately reported to the Security Council;”

“Decides to establish a ban on all flights in the airspace of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in order to help protect civilians;”

Cote d’Ivoire: S/RES/1975 (2011)

“Condemning the serious abuses and violations of international law in Côte d’Ivoire, including humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, reaffirming the primary responsibility of each State to protect civilians and reiterating that parties to armed conflicts bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance and the safety of humanitarian personnel…”

“Reaffirming that it is the responsibility of Côte d’Ivoire to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, to investigate alleged violations of human rights and international law and to bring to justice those responsible for such acts," 

“Recalls its authorization and stresses its full support given to the UNOCI, while impartially implementing its mandate, to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence, within its capabilities and its areas of deployment, including to prevent the use of heavy weapons against the civilian population and requests the Secretary-General to keep it urgently informed of measures taken and efforts made in this regard;”

Reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan: S/RES/1996 (2011)

“Support the Government of the Republic of South Sudan in exercising its responsibilities for conflict prevention, mitigation, and resolution and protect civilians through:”

“Advising and assisting the Government of the Republic of South Sudan, including military and police at national and local levels as appropriate, in fulfilling its responsibility to protect civilians, in compliance with international humanitarian, human rights, and refugee law;”

Middle East: (Yemen) S/RES/2014 (2011)

“Recalling the Yemeni Government’s primary responsibility to protect its population,”

Libya: S/RES/2016 (2011)

“Strongly urges the Libyan authorities to refrain from reprisals, including arbitrary detentions, calls upon the Libyan authorities to take all steps necessary to prevent reprisals, wrongful imprisonment and extrajudicial executions, and underscores the Libyan authorities’ responsibility for the protection of its population, including foreign nationals and African migrants;" 

2012

Libya: S/RES/2040 (2012)

“Expresses grave concern at continuing reports of reprisals, arbitrary detentions without access to due process, wrongful imprisonment, mistreatment, torture and extrajudicial executions in Libya and calls upon the Libyan authorities to take all steps necessary to prevent violations of human rights, underscores the Libyan authorities’ primary responsibility for the protection of Libya’s population, as well as foreign nationals, including African migrants, and calls for the immediate release of all foreign nationals illegally detained in Libya;" 

Mali: S/RES/2085 (2012)

“To support the Malian authorities in their primary responsibility to protect the population;”

“Emphasizes that the Malian authorities have primary responsibility to protect civilians in Mali, further recalls its resolutions 1674 (2006), 1738 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict”

2013
 
Somalia: S/RES/2093

"Recognizing that the Federal Government of Somalia has a responsibility to protect its citizens and build its own national security forces,"

Libya: S/RES/2095 (2013) 

"Underscores the Libyan government’s primary responsibility for the protection of Libya’s population, as well as foreign nationals, including African migrants;"

Mali: S/RES/2100 (2013)

“Emphasizing that the transitional authorities of Mali have primary responsibility for resolving the interlinked challenges facing their country and protecting all their citizens…”

“Reiterates that the transitional authorities of Mali have primary responsibility to protect civilians in Mali…”

“Reiterates that the training, consolidation and redeployment of the Malian Defence and Security Forces is vital to ensure Mali’s long-term security and stability and to protect the people of Mali and stresses the importance of the Malian Defence and Security Forces assuming full responsibility for providing security throughout the Malian territory;”

Sudan/South Sudan: S/RES/2109 (2013)

“Recalling the Presidential Statement of 12 February 2013 that recognized that States bear the primary responsibility to protect civilians as well as to respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction as provided for by relevant international law, reaffirmed that parties to armed conflict bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians, urged parties to armed conflict to meet civilians’ basic needs, and condemned all violations of international law against civilians, in particular the deliberate targeting of civilians, indiscriminate or disproportionate attacks, and sexual and gender based violence.”

“Reiterates its call upon the Government of the Republic of South Sudan to take greater responsibility for the protection of its civilians and in this respect encourages greater cooperation with UNMISS;”

Small Arms and Light Weapons: S/RES/2117 (2013)

“Recognizing that the misuse of small arms and light weapons has resulted in grave crimes and reaffirming therefore the relevant provisions of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including paragraphs 138 and 139 thereof regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,”

Central African Republic: S/RES/2121 (2013)

“Underscores the primary responsibility of the Central African authorities to protect the population, as well as to ensure the security and unity in its territory, and stresses their obligation to ensure respect for international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law;”

“Looks forward to the swift establishment of MISCA, which will represent a major contribution towards creating the conditions for a stable and democratic CAR exercising authority over its national territory and assuming its responsibility for the protection of its civilian population;”

Central African Republic: S/RES/2127 (2013)

“Recalling that the Transitional Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect the civilian population,” 

“Underscores the primary responsibility of the Transitional Authorities to protect the population, as well as to ensure the security and unity in its territory, and stresses their obligation to ensure respect for international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law;”

2014

Central African Republic: S/RES/2134 (2014) 

"Recalling that the Transitional Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect the civilian population in the CAR,"

The Situation in the Middle East (Syria): S/RES/2139 (2014)

"Also demands that all parties take all appropriate steps to protect civilians, including members of ethnic, religious and confessional communities, and stresses that, in this regard, the primary responsibility to protect its population lies with the Syrian authorities;"

Central African Republic: S/RES/2149 (2014)

"Recalling that the Transitional Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect the civilian population in the CAR," 

Prevention and Fight against Genocide: S/RES/2150 (2014)

"Acknowledging the important role played by regional and subregional arrangements in the prevention of, and response to, situations that may lead to genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, especially noting Article 4(h) of the Constitutive Act of the African Union,"

"Recalling the important role of the Secretary General’s Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect, whose functions include acting as an early warning mechanism to prevent potential situations that could result in genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing,"

"Calls upon States to recommit to prevent and fight against genocide, and other serious crimes under international law, reaffirms paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document (A/6O/L. 1) on the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, and underscores the importance of taking into account lessons learned from the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, during which Hutu and others who opposed the genocide were also killed,"

South Sudan: S/RES/2155 (2014)

“Emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable and that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including from potential crimes against humanity and war crimes,”

Middle East (Syria): S/RES/2165 (2014)

"Reaffirming the primary responsibility of the Syrian authorities to protect the population in Syria..."

Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts: S/RES/2170 (2014)

“Underlining the primary responsibility of Member States to protect civilian populations on their territories, in accordance with their obligations under international law,..”

Conflict Prevention: S/RES/2171 (2014) 

“Recalling that the prevention of conflict remains a primary responsibility of States, and further recalling their primary responsibility to protect civilians and to respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction, as provided for by relevant international law, and further, reaffirming the responsibility of each individual State to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity,”

“Recalls the important role of the Secretary-General’s Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect, whose functions include acting as an early warning mechanism to prevent potential situations that could result in genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing… calls upon States to recommit to prevent and fight against genocide, and other serious crimes under international law, and reaffirms paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document (A/60/L.1) on the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity;”

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: S/RES/2185 (2014)

"Highlighting the important role that United Nations Police Components can play, where mandated, in consultation with the host State and in collaboration with other components, in supporting host States to uphold their primary responsibility to protect civilians as well as respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction...”

South Sudan: S/RES/2187 (2014)

“…the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including from potential crimes against humanity and war crimes,” 

“Expressing grave concern that according to the 8 May 2014 “Conflict in South Sudan: A Human Rights Report”, there are reasonable grounds to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity, including extrajudicial killings, rape and other acts of sexual violence, enforced disappearances, and arbitrary arrests and detention have been committed by both government and opposition forces

2015

Central African Republic: S/RES/2196 (2015)

"Recalling that the Central African Republic bears the primary responsibility to protect all populations within its territory from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,"

Democratic Republic of the Congo: S/RES/2198 (2015)

"Stressing the primary responsibility of the Government of the DRC for ensuring security in its territory and protecting its populations with respect for the rule of law, human rights and international humanitarian law,"

South Sudan: S/RES/2206 (2015)

"…emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable, and that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity,”
  
Central African Republic: S/RES/2217 (2015)

"Recalling that the Central African Republic authorities have the primary responsibility to protect all populations in the CAR in particular from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,"

Small Arms: S/RES/2220 (2015)

"Reaffirming the relevant provisions of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including paragraphs 138 and 139 thereof regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,"

South Sudan: S/RES/2203 (2015)

“emphasizing…that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,”

"Expressing grave concern that according to these reports there are reasonable grounds to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity, including extrajudicial killings, rape and other acts of sexual violence, enforced disappearances the use of children in armed conflict, and arbitrary arrests and detention have been committed by both government and opposition forces, and noting that such crimes constitute actions that threaten the peace, security and stability of South Sudan,"

Sudan/Darfur : S/2015/2228 (2015)

"Emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and vocations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable and that the Government of Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity….”

Mali: S/RES/2227 (2015)

“Reiterating its strong support for the Special Representative of the SecretaryGeneral for Mali and for the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to assist the Malian authorities and the Malian people in their efforts to bring lasting peace and stability to their country, noting the development of the Protection of Civilians strategy of MINUSMA, bearing in mind the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities to protect the population….”

South Sudan: S/RES/2241 (2015)

“Further condemning harassment and targeting of civil society, humanitarian personnel and journalists, and emphasizing the importance of accountability for those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights and that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect its populations from crimes against humanity, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and genocide," 

"Expressing grave concern that according to some of these reports there are reasonable grounds to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity, including those involving extrajudicial killings, rape and other acts of sexual violence, enforced disappearances, the use of children in armed conflict, and arbitrary arrests and detention have been committed by both government and opposition forces, and noting that such crimes constitute actions that threaten the peace, security and stability of South Sudan,”

“Reaffirming its resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006), 1738 (2006), 1894 (2009), 2150 (2014) and 2222 (2015) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and 1502 (2003) and 2175 (2015) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel; resolutions 1612 (2005), 1882 (2009), 1998 (2011), 2068 (2012), 2143 (2014) and 2225 (2015) on children and armed conflict; resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), and 2122 (2013) on women, peace, and security; resolution 2150 (2014)on the prevention and fight against genocide; resolution 2151 (2014) on security sector reform; and resolution 2171 (2014) on conflict prevention.”

Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict S/RES/2250 (2015)

“Reaffirms that each state bears the primary responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity”

South Sudan: S/RES/2252 (2015)

“Emphasizing the importance of accountability for those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights and that the Government of South Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect its populations from crimes against humanity, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and genocide.”

Syria: S/RES/2254 (2015)

“Recalling its demand that all parties take all appropriate steps to protect civilians, including members of ethnic, religious and confessional communities, and stresses that, in this regard, the primary responsibility to protect its population lies with the Syrian authorities,”

Syria: S/RES/2258 (2015)

“Reaffirming the primary responsibility of the Syrian authorities to protect the population in Syria”

2016

Sudan and South Sudan: S/RES/2265 (2016)

“…recalling that the Government of Sudan bears the primary responsibility for protecting all populations within its territory, with respect for the rule of law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law”

Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: S/RES/2286

"Reaffirming the primary responsibility of States to protect the population throughout their whole territory and recalling in this regard that all parties to armed conflict must comply fully with the obligations applicable to them under international humanitarian law related to the protection of civilians in armed conflict and medical personnel,”

Liberia: S/RES/2333

"Affirming that the Government of Liberia bears primary responsibility for ensuring peace, stability and the protection of the civilian population in Liberia and for reforming and building the capacity of the security sector, urging the Government of Liberia to demonstrate substantive progress in the reform, restructuring and effective functioning of the security and justice sectors to provide for the protection of all the people of Liberia,"

Democratic Republic of Congo: S/RES/2277

"Recalling that the Government of the DRC bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity and war crimes,"

Sudan: S/RES/2296

"Emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable and that the Government of Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity and war crimes" 

Syria: S/RES/2332

"Reaffirming the primary responsibility of the Syrian authorities to protect the population in Syria and, reiterating that parties to armed conflict must take all feasible steps to protect civilians, and recalling in this regard its demand that all parties to armed conflict comply fully with the obligations applicable to them under international law related to the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including journalists, media professionals and associated personnel,”

The Situation in Cote d’Ivoire: S/RES/2284

"Recalling that the Government of Côte d’Ivoire bears primary responsibility for ensuring peace, stability and the protection of civilians in Côte d’Ivoire,"

2017

Central African Republic: S/RES/2339 (2017)

“Recalling that the CAR bears the primary responsibility to protect all populations within its territory from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,” 

Gambia: S/RES/2337(2017)

“recalling that the Gambian government bears primary responsibility for protecting human rights and protecting the civilian population in The Gambia and demanding that all stakeholders and parties act with maximum restraint, refrain from violence and remain calm,”

Peace and security in Africa: S/RES/2349 (2017)

“Reiterates the primary responsibility of Member States to protect civilian populations on their territories, in accordance with their obligations under international law,”
 

Democratic Republic of the Congo: S/RES/2348 (2017)

“Recalling that the Government of the DRC bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity and war crimes,”

Peace and security in Africa: S/RES/2359 (2017)

“Underlining the primary responsibility of the G5 Sahel States to ensure the protection of civilians in their respective territories in accordance with their obligations under international law,”

Mali: S/RES/2364 (2017)

“Reiterates that the Malian authorities have primary responsibility to protect civilians in Mali,”

 

 

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