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The Role of Women in the RtoP Framework

 The United Nations (UN), as well as regional bodies and governments have begun to recognize that conflict and post-conflict reconciliation affects men and women differently.  This acknowledgement of the varied roles is a first step in developing gendered responses to conflict.  The international community must address the need to protect women from mass atrocity crimes as well as identify and incorporate the contribution of women in the prevention and resolution of crises.  Developing a gendered response to conflict will enable the UN, regional organization and governments to guarantee the rights of women and further integrate their role in peace and security.  The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) framework complements existing commitments to protect women’s human rights and can also act as a tool for incorporating women’s leadership in preventing and stopping mass atrocity crimes.


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RtoP and the Security Council agenda on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict
On 28 April 2006, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1674 on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict. Resolution 1674 contains the historic first official Security Council reference to the Responsibility to Protect. On 28 June 2006, the Council held its first open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, which it has since held twice yearly. The purpose of these semi-annual debates is to take stock of developments in the area of protection of civilians, particularly situation-specific information and assess progress in the implementation of commitments made in Res. 1674. Discussions on RtoP have been an important component of these debates, and governments have used the debates to express their support for RtoP. 
RtoP and the role of the Peacebuilding Commission
The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), created in 2005, is an important tool in the wide range of measures available in the Responsibility to Protect framework, not only in post-conflict reconciliation and rebuilding efforts, but also as a tool of prevention.  Click here to find out more about the parallel developments of RtoP and PBC, and how the PBC can address the protection of populations from mass atrocities.  
The International Criminal Court (ICC) and the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP)
The ICC and the RtoP norm enjoy a complementary relationship; they work together towards the prevention of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. Read more about the relationship between the Responsibility to Protect and the International Criminal Court with respect to concept of complementarity and the prevention and deterence of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.

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